semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things. By 1794, they pointed to the Terror during the French Revolution as confirmation of their predictions. 8 Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza. 175 The vast majority of the reading public could not afford to own a private library and while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading. 150 Rising efficiency in production techniques and communication lowered the prices of consumer goods and increased the amount and variety of goods available to consumers (including the literature essential to the public sphere). Livingstone and Charles. Science and the Enlightenment (1985). Van Dulmen, Richard; Williams, Anthony, eds.
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Radical Enlightenment; Philosophy and the Making of Modernity. Before the Enlightenment, most intellectual debates revolved around "confessional" that is, Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) or Anglican issues and the main aim of these debates was to establish which bloc of faith ought to have the "monopoly of truth and a God-given title to authority". Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
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56 Senior ministers Pombal in Portugal and Johann Friedrich Struensee in Denmark also governed according to Enlightenment ideals. The Ibero-American Enlightenment (1971). Translated by Lydia. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Voltaire, who had been imprisoned and maltreated by the French government, was eager to accept Frederick's invitation to live at his palace. The majority of textbooks on British history make little or no mention of an English Enlightenment. 112 113 Russia edit In Russia, the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences in the mid-18th century. The Historical Journal, Vol. The words in this article implied that man should be able to find his own way without paternal authority.
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